Displaying 1 - 52 of 52 tests
Alcian BlueSpecial stain. Alcian blue is intended to identify weakly sulfated mucins in tissue samples. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
BerEP4Ber-EP4 recognizes two glycoproteins of 34 and 49 kDa present on the surface and the cytoplasm of all epithelial cells except the superficial layers of squamous epithelial, hepatocytes and parietal cells. It does not label mesothelial cells and rarely marks mesotheliomas. It shows a broad spectrum of reactivity with human epithelial cells including simple epithelia and basal layers of stratified non-keratinized squamous epithelium and epidermis. Ber-EP4 reportedly distinguishes adenocarcinomas from pleural mesotheliomas. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
BG8This antibody is specific for the Lewis Y (Type 2 Chain) carbohydrate antigen. Lewis Y has been evaluated as a clinical marker for the diagnosis and prognosis of cholangiocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and breast cancer. It was also shown that BG8 reacts predominantly with lung adenocarcinomas and is negative focally or weakly positive in epithelial mesotheliomas. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
BRAF Mutation Analysis

Bi-directional sequencing of exon 15 of the BRAF gene, which includes qualitative detection of V600 mutations E, K, D, and others, plus other significant exon 15 mutations.  For solid tumors, tumor enrichment is performed before extraction. Expanded coverage for BRAF exons 11 & 15 is available in the RAS/RAF Panel. Testing is available separately or in combination with HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS in the RAS/RAF Panel. Testing is approved for specimens from the state of New York. 

Molecular
BRAF Rearrangement

Probes: BRAF (7q34)
Disease(s): Brain cancer, thyroid cancer, melanoma

FISH
BRAF V600EA monoclonal antibody (VE1) against mutant BRAF (V600E) permits fast assessment of the mutant protein expression throughout a tumor sample in hairy cell leukemia, some melanomas, and some thyroid carcinomas. BRAF mutation is a strong molecular marker of poor prognosis in colorectal carcinoma (CRC), and can be used as evidence of a sporadic mechanism of mismatch repair deficiency. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CalcitoninCalcitonin is secreted by thyroidal parafollicular cells of neuroectodermal origin, probably in response to hypercalcemia. The IHC demonstration of calcitonin is important: (1) For identification of early or microscopic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), (2) To identify an MTC in the absence of amyloid deposits, (3) To distinguish non-typical forms of MTC (e.g., predominantly spindle cell or small cell patterns) from anaplastic carcinoma or malignant lymphoma, (4) To differentiate MTC with microfollicular or papillary patterns from thyroid follicular and papillary neoplasms and (5) To identify C-cell hyperplasia in association with hypercalcemia of diverse etiologies. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CAM 5.2Anti-Cytokeratin (CAM 5.2) has a primary reactivity with human keratin proteins that correspond to Moll`s peptides #7 and #8, Mr 48 and 52 Kd. Cytokeratin 8 is present on secretory epithelia of normal human tissue but not on stratified squamous epithelium. CAM 5.2 stains most epithelial derived tissue, including liver, renal tubular epithelium, hepatocellular and renal cell carcinomas. CAM 5.2 may not react with some squamous cell carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD31CD31 is a 130kDa transmembrane glycoprotein that is shared by vascular lining cells, megakaryocytes and platelets. This marker is highly restricted to endothelial neoplasms among all tumors of the soft tissue and its sensitivity is excellent. 100% of angiosarcomas and hemangiomas are CD31 positive. However, Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) is labeled more consistently by CD34 than by CD31. CD31 has also been used as a prognostic marker measuring tumor angiogenesis. CD31 also stains histiocytes. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Chromogranin AChromogranin is present in several elements of the diffuse neuroendocrine system (DNES), including anterior pituitary, thyroid perifollicular C cells, parathyroid chief cells, pancreatic islet cells, intestinal enterochromaffin cells and tumors derived from these cells. Chromogranin immunoreactivity was also seen in thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, fetal liver, neurons, the inner segment of rods and cones, the submandibullar gland and the central nervous system. This marker is useful in evaluating neuroendocrine tumors. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CK AE1/AE3Monoclonal antibodies AE1 and AE3 recognize the acidic and basic subfamilies of cytokeratin, respectively, thus the combination of these two antibodies can be used to detect almost all human epithelia. In surgical pathology, it is an important marker for carcinoma as well as some special tumor types which have an epithelial component or differentiation. This cocktail has been used to differentiate epithelial from non-epithelial tumors. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CK HMW (CK903/34BE12)CK903 (34betaE12) is a high molecular weight cytokeratin present in all squamous epithelium and their carcinomas. This antibody recognizes cytokeratins 1, 5, 10 and 14 that are found in complex epithelia. There has been no reactivity with cells derived from simple epithelia, mesenchymal tumors, lymphomas, melanomas, neural tumors and neuroendocrine tumors. One useful application is the identification of the basal cell layer in prostate tissue in the determination of carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CK19Cytokeratin 19 (CK19) is a member of the type I acidic subfamily of keratins. It is expressed in various different human tissues. CK19 labels ductal and glandular epithelia, prostatic epithelia, and non-keratinizing squamous epithelia. This antibody is useful in the diagnosis of breast and cervical carcinoma. CK19 is not expressed in hepatocytes, therefore, antibody to CK19 is also useful in the distinction of liver metastasis from hepatocellular carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CK20Cytokeratin 20 (CK20) positivity is seen in the majority of adenocarcinomas of the colon, mucinous ovarian carcinomas, transitional cell, and Merkel cell carcinomas, and frequently in adenocarcinomas of the stomach, bile system and pancreas. CK7/CK20 immunostaining patterns may be helpful in separating pulmonary from colonic adenocarcinomas. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CK5/6D5/16 B4 clone of CK5/6 antibody reacts strongly with cytokeratins 5 and 6. Cytokeratin 5/6 have been found valuable for the distinction between low differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. It labels mesothelioma, and epithelial basal cells in prostate and tonsil. No reactivity with other mesodermally derived tissues, such as muscle and connective tissues, has been observed. Anti-CK 5/6 has also been found useful in the differential diagnosis of atypical proliferations of the breast. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CK7Cytokeratin 7 (CK7) antibody reacts with proteins that are found in most ductal, glandular and transitional epithelium of the urinary tract and bile duct epithelial cells. CK7 distinguishes between lung and breast epithelium that stain positive, and colon and prostate epithelial cells that are negative. It also reacts with many benign and malignant epithelial lesions, e.g. adenocarcinomas of the ovary, breast and lung. Transitional cell carcinomas are positive and most prostate cancers are negative. This antibody does not recognize other intermediate filament proteins. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
EMAEpithelial Membrane Antigen (EMA) antibody stains normal and neoplastic cells from various tissues, including mammary epithelium, sweat glands and squamous epithelium. Hepatocellular carcinoma, adrenal carcinoma and embryonal carcinomas are consistently EMA negative, therefore, keratin positivity with negative EMA favors one of these tumors. EMA is frequently positive in meningioma, which can be useful when distinguishing it from other intracranial neoplasms, e.g. Schwannomas. The absence of EMA can also be of value since negative EMA is characteristic of tumors such as adrenal carcinoma, seminomas, paraganglioma and hepatoma. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
FOXP3FOX P3 is expressed at a high level in CD25 positive/CD4 positive regulatory T cells, at a low level in CD4 positive/CD25 negative cells, and is absent in CD4 negative/CD8 positive T cells. FOX P3 may be a master regulatory gene and a more specific marker of regulatory T cells than other T cells. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Galectin 3Galectins are a structurally-related family of proteins; 14 different galectins have been characterized. They are cytoplasmic proteins and can be translocated into the nucleus. Gal-3 has been found overexpressed in most malignant thyroid neoplasms. However, it was not detectable in normal and non-malignant tissue. Galactin 3 is a useful marker to differentiate benign from malignant (Calactin-3 positive) thyroid neoplasms. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
GNAS Mutation Analysis

Bi-directional sequencing of exons 8 and 9 of the GNAS gene to detect mutation hot spots in codons R201 and Q227.

Molecular
HBME1HBME1 is an anti-mesothelial monoclonal antibody that recognizes an unknown antigen on the microvilli of mesothelioma cells. It stains normal mesothelial cells as well as epithelial mesotheliomas in a thick membrane pattern. This antibody also reacts with some carcinomas showing cytoplasmic immunostaining. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
HRAS Mutation Analysis

Bi-directional sequencing of HRAS exons 2 and 3 which includes sites of common activating mutations in codons 12, 13, 59 and 61.

Molecular
IDH1 & IDH2 Mutation Analysis

Bi-directional sequencing of the exon 4 mutation hotspot regions in both the IDH1 and IDH2 genes. IDH1 and IDH2 are analyzed concurrently. In hematological disease, testing may be performed on plasma to increase sensitivity. For solid tumors, tumor enrichment is performed before extraction.

Molecular
Ki67

Ki67 is a nuclear protein that is expressed in proliferating cells. Ki67 is preferentially expressed during late G1, S, M, and G2 phases of the cell cycle, while cells in the G0 (quiescent) phase are negative for this protein. Increased proliferative activity is associated with more aggressive tumor and decreased disease-free survival period.
Note: Computer-assisted image analysis for Ki-67 is only validated for breast cancer and neuroendocrine carcinoma.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
MSAMuscle Specific Actin (MSA) antibody recognizes the alpha and gamma isotypes of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells. It is non-reactive with other mesenchymal cells and all epithelial cells except for myoepithelium. This antibody is useful in the identification of tumors with muscle differentiation and detection of myoepithelial cells. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
NeoARRAY™ SNP/Cytogenetic Profile

The NeoARRAY SNP/Cytogenetic Profile is available for hematological, solid tumor, and pregnancy loss indications. With the best genome-wide coverage available, this test employs an enhanced SNP microarray with over 2.6 million SNP and non-polymorphic markers for detection of copy number variants (deletions, duplications, and amplifications) and loss of heterozygosity or uniparental disomy (LOH or UPD) in any chromosome. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of copy number variants >400 kb is >99%. Testing may not reliably detect abnormalities present in less than 20% of the cells tested. Balanced rearrangements, including translocations and inversions, are not detectable by this method. Clients may request NeoARRAY on POC as the sole test, or they may order POC cytogenetics with reflex to NeoARRAY if the POC culture fails or if cytogenetic results are normal. For reflex orders, if there is no cell attachment or growth after 14 days in culture, a cytogenetics failure report will be issued and NeoARRAY will be performed. If there is limited cell attachment after 14 days in culture, NeoGenomics will contact the client for instructions. When array testing is not performed, a fee will be charged for DNA extraction (which is performed upon specimen receipt).

Molecular
NeoLAB™ Solid Tumor Monitor - Liquid Biopsy

The NeoLAB™ Solid Tumor Monitor is a blood test that uses cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) or RNA in combination with next-generation sequencing (NGS) to detect mutations in the following 48 genes: ABL1, AKT1, ALK, APC, ATM, BRAF, CDH1, CDKN2A, CSF1R, CTNNB1, EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB4, FBXW7, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, FLT3, GNA11, GNAQ, GNAS, HNF1A, HRAS, IDH1, JAK2, JAK3, KDR, KIT, KRAS, MET, MLH1, MPL, NOTCH1, NPM1, NRAS, PDGFRA, PIK3CA, PTEN, PTPN11, RB1, RET, SMAD4, SMARCB1, SMO, SRC, STK11, TP53, and VHL. The EGFR T790 mutation is tested at high sensitivity (10^-4). Test orders include summary interpretation of all results together. NOTE: One-time baseline molecular testing at NeoGenomics on the solid tumor is required. Please see details in Specimen Requirements.

Molecular
NeoTYPE Discovery Profile for Solid Tumors

This test is performed by sequencing the entire coding regions of the genes listed unless another method is noted. ABL1, ABL2, ACVR1B, AKT1, AKT2, AKT3, ALK, AMER1 (FAM123B), APC, AR, ARAF, ARFRP1, ARID1A, ARID1B, ARID2, ASXL1, ATM, ATR, ATRX, AURKA, AURKB, AXIN1, AXL, BAP1, BARD1, BCL2, BCL2L1, BCL2L2, BCL6, BCOR, BCORL1, BLM, BRAF, BRCA1, BRCA2, BRD4, BRIP1, BTG1, BTK, C11orf30, CARD11, CBFB, CBL, CCND1, CCND2, CCND3, CCNE1, CD274, CD79A, CD79B, CDC73, CDH1, CDK12, CDK4, CDK6, CDK8, CDKN1A, CDKN1B, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CDKN2C, CEBPA, CHD2, CHD4, CHEK1, CHEK2, CIC, CREBBP, CRKL, CRLF2, CSF1R, CTCF, CTNNA1, CTNNB1, CUL3, CYLD, DAXX, DDR2, DICER1, DNMT3A, DOT1L, EGFR, EP300, EPHA3, EPHA5, EPHA7, EPHB1, ERBB2, ERBB3, ERBB4, ERG, ERRFI1, ESR1, EZH2, FAM46C, FANCA, FANCC, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCL, FAS, FAT1, FBXW7, FGF10, FGF14, FGF19, FGF23, FGF3, FGF4, FGF6, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, FGFR4, FH, FLCN, FLT1, FLT3, FLT4, FOXL2, FOXP1, FRS2, FUBP1, GABRA6, GATA1, GATA2, GATA3, GATA4, GATA6, GID4 (C17orf39), GLI1, GNA11, GNA13, GNAQ, GNAS, GPR124, GRIN2A, GRM3, GSK3B, H3F3A, HGF, HNF1A, HRAS, HSD3B1, HSP90AA1, IDH1, IDH2, IGF1R, IGF2, IKBKE, IKZF1, IL7R, INHBA, INPP4B, IRF2, IRF4, IRS2, JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, JUN, KAT6A (MYST3), KDM5A, KDM5C, KDM6A, KDR, KEAP1, KEL, KIT, KLHL6, KMT2A (MLL), KMT2C (MLL3), KMT2D (MLL2), KRAS, LMO1, LRP1B, LYN, LZTR1, MAGI2, MAP2K1 (MEK1) , MAP2K2 (MEK2) , MAP2K4 (MEK4), MAP3K1 (MEKK) , MCL1, MDM2, MDM4, MED12, MEF2B, MEN1, MET, MITF, MLH1, MPL, MRE11A, MSH2, MSH6, MTOR, MUTYH, MYC, MYCL (MYCL1), MYCN, MYD88, NBN, NF1, NF2, NFE2L2, NFKBIA, NKX2-1, NOTCH1, NOTCH2, NOTCH3, NPM1, NRAS, NSD1, NTRK1, NTRK2, NTRK3, NUP93, PAK3, PALB2, PARK2, PAX5, PBRM1, PDCD1LG2, PDGFRA, PDGFRB, PDK1, PIK3C2B, PIK3CA, PIK3CB, PIK3CG, PIK3R1, PIK3R2, PLCG2, PMS2, POLD1, POLE, PPP2R1A, PRDM1, PREX2, PRKAR1A, PRKCI, PRKDC, PRSS8, PTCH1, PTEN, PTPN11, QKI, RAC1, RAD50, RAD51, RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, RAD54L, RAF1, RANBP2, RARA, RB1, RBM10, RET, RICTOR, RNF43, ROS1, RPTOR, RUNX1, RUNX1T1, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SETD2, SF3B1, SLIT2, SMAD2, SMAD3, SMAD4, SMARCA4, SMARCB1, SMO, SNCAIP, SOCS1, SOX10, SOX2, SOX9, SPEN, SPOP, SPTA1, SRC, STAG2, STAT3, STAT4, STK11, SUFU, SYK, TAF1, TBX3, TERC, TERT, TET2, TGFBR2, TNFAIP3, TNFRSF14, TOP1, TOP2A, TP53, TSC1, TSC2, TSHR, U2AF1, VEGFA, VHL, WISP3, WT1, XPO1, ZBTB2, ZNF217, ZNF703, ALK FISH, BRAF FISH, HER2 FISH, MET FISH, c-MYC FISH, PDGFRA Amplification FISH, PTEN FISH, RET FISH, ROS1 FISH and PD-L1 IHC. Tumor Mutation Burden (TMB) testing is performed with all Discovery Profiles. Test orders include summary interpretation of all results together.

Molecular
NeoTYPE Other Solid Tumor Profile

This test is performed by sequencing the entire coding regions of the genes listed unless another method is noted. AKT1, BRAF, EGFR, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, GNAS, HRAS, IDH1, IDH2, JAK3, KIT, KRAS, MET, NOTCH1, NRAS, PDGFRA, PIK3CA, PTEN, PTPN11, SMAD4, SMO, SRC, TP53, MET FISH, PTEN FISH, and PD-L1 IHC. Tumor Mutation Burden (TMB) testing and individual genes from a validated list of genes can be added. Test orders include summary interpretation of all results together. FISH components of NeoTYPE Profiles may be ordered as "Tech-Only" by pathology clients who wish to perform the professional component.

Molecular
NeoTYPE Precision Profile for Solid Tumors

The NeoTYPE Precision Profile for Solid Tumors utilizes next-generation sequencing to detect mutations in the following 48 genes: ABL1, AKT1, ALK, APC, ATM, BRAF, CDH1, CDKN2A, CSF1R, CTNNB1, EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB4, FBXW7, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, FLT3, GNA11, GNAQ, GNAS, HNF1A, HRAS, IDH1, JAK2, JAK3, KDR, KIT, KRAS, MET, MLH1, MPL, NOTCH1, NPM1, NRAS, PDGFRA, PIK3CA, PTEN, PTPN11, RB1, RET, SMAD4, SMARCB1, SMO, SRC, STK11, TP53, VHL and PD-L1 IHC. This test is performed by sequencing the enitre coding regions of the genes listed unless another method is noted. Tumor Mutation Burden testing can be added. Test orders include summary interpretation of all results together.

Molecular
NeoTYPE Thyroid Profile

This test is performed by sequencing the entire coding regions of the genes listed unless another method is noted. AKT1, ALK, BRAF, CTNNB1, ERBB2, ERBB4, HRAS, KRAS, MET, NRAS, PIK3CA, RET, SMAD4, SMO, SRC, TERT Promoter, MET FISH, RET FISH, PD-L1 IHC. TERT Promoter is performed by bi-directional sanger sequencing. Tumor Mutation Burden (TMB) testing and individual genes from a validated list of genes can be added. Test orders include summary interpretation of all results together. FISH components of NeoTYPE Profiles may be ordered as "Tech-Only" by pathology clients who wish to perform the professional component.

Molecular
NGS ALK, NTRK, RET, ROS1 Fusion Profile

The NGS ALK, NTRK, RET, ROS1 Fusion Profile is a targeted next-generation sequencing panel that detects significant translocations in the genes ALK (fusions of exons 19-22), NTRK1 (fusions of exons 8 and 10-13), NTRK3 (fusions of exons 13-16), RET (fusions of exons 8-13) and ROS1 (fusions of exons 31-37) simultaneously. Some of the more common translocations detected include EML4-ALK, KIF5B-ALK, NPM1-ALK, TPM3-ALK, CD74-NTRK1, MPRIP-NTRK1, ETV6-NTRK3, CCD6-RET (aka RET-PTC1), ERC1-RET, HOOK3-RET, KIF5B-RET, NCOA4-RET (aka RET-PTC3), PCM1-RET, TRIM33-RET, CD74-ROS1, SLC34A2-ROS1 and TPM3-ROS1. This test detects rearrangements common in lung carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, anaplastic large cell lymphoma as well as other tumors. ALK1 and ROS1 gene rearrangements are found in 3-5% and 1-2% of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC), respectively, and determine likelihood of response to crizotinib (Xalkori®) therapy. RET translocations detected in this test are common in papillary thyroid carcinoma and are also seen in 1-2% of NSCLC. In early clinical studies, patients with RET rearranged NSCLC show response to multi-kinase inhibitors. NTRK1 rearrangement are frequent in papillary thyroid carcinoma and reported in a small subset of patients with NSCLC; early clinical studies suggest response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We recommend FISH as the primary method of ALK, RET, and/or ROS1 rearrangement detection. We suggest using this test for NTRK analysis and/or cases that fail to provide conclusive FISH results.

Molecular
NGS ALK, RET, ROS1 Fusion Profile

The NGS ALK, RET, ROS1 Fusion Profile is a targeted next-generation sequencing panel that detects significant translocations in the genes ALK (fusions of exons 19-22), RET (fusions of exons 8-13) and ROS1 (fusions of exons 31-37) simultaneously. In addition, mutations related to crizotinib resistance can also be detected in the genes ALK and RET. Some of the more common translocations detected include EML4-ALK, KIF5B-ALK, NPM1-ALK, TPM3-ALK, CCD6-RET (aka RET-PTC1), ERC1-RET, HOOK3-RET, KIF5B-RET, NCOA4-RET (aka RET-PTC3), PCM1-RET, TRIM33-RET, CD74-ROS1, SLC34A2-ROS1 and TPM3-ROS1. This test detects rearrangements common in lung carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, anaplastic large cell lymphoma as well as other tumors. ALK1 and ROS1 gene rearrangements are found in 3-5% and 1-2% of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC), respectively, and determine likelihood of response to crizotinib (Xalkori®) therapy. RET translocations detected in this test are common in papillary thyroid carcinoma and are also seen in 1-2% of NSCLC. In early clinical studies, patients with RET rearranged NSCLC show response to multi-kinase inhibitors. We recommend FISH as the primary method of ALK, RET, and ROS1 rearrangement detection and suggest this test be used in cases that fail to provide conclusive FISH results.

Molecular
NGS Thyroid Fusion Profile

The NGS Thyroid Fusion Profile is a targeted next-generation sequencing panel that detects significant translocations in the genes NTRK1 (fusions of exons 8 and 10-13), NTRK3 (fusions of exons 13-16), and RET (fusions of exons 8-13) simultaneously. Some of the more common translocations detected include CD74-NTRK1, MPRIP-NTRK1, ETV6-NTRK3, CCD6-RET (aka RET-PTC1), ERC1-RET, HOOK3-RET, KIF5B-RET, NCOA4-RET (aka RET-PTC3), PCM1-RET, and TRIM33-RET. This test detects rearrangements common in lung and thyroid cancer as well as other tumors. RET translocations detected in this test are common in papillary thyroid carcinoma and are also seen in 1-2% of NSCLC. NTRK1 rearrangements are frequent in papillary thyroid carcinoma and reported in a small subset of patients with NSCLC. Early clinical studies suggest that tumors with NTRK1/3 rearrangements respond to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We suggest using this test for NTRK and RET analysis and/or cases that fail to provide conclusive FISH results.

Molecular
NRAS Exon 4 Mutation Analysis

Bi-directional sequencing of NRAS exon 4 is performed using PCR primers designed to target hotspot mutations in codons 117 and 146, among other regions in exon 4. Testing is available separately or in combination with BRAF, KRAS and HRAS in the RAS/RAF Panel.

Molecular
NRAS Mutation Analysis

Bi-directional sequencing of NRAS exons 2 and 3 which includes sites of common activating mutations in codons 12, 13, 59, and 61.

Molecular
NSE (Neuron Specific Enolase)In normal tissue, most neurons and their axonal and dendritic processes stain strongly positive for Neuron Specific Enolase (NSE), with the exception of Purkinje cells. Schwann cells, cells of the adrenal medulla, and paraganglia also contain NSE. Endocrine cells of the skin (Merkel cells), respiratory and GI tract epithelium, pituitary parathyroid, and pancreatic islets and C cells of thyroid all stain positively for NSE. NSE is expressed in ganglioneuromas, neuroblastomas, Schwannomas and malignant melanomas. It is also present in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Carcinoids, medullary thyroid carcinomas, pituitary adenomas and endocrine tumors of the pancreas and GI tract all show positive immunoreactivity for NSE. NSE is found in neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin (Merkel cell tumor) and small cell carcinoma of the lung. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
p21p21 is a cyclin dependent protein kinase inhibitor and is a member of a family of proteins that functions to slow down cell division. p21 is found in t cells as they transitions from G1 phase to S phase. Low nuclear expression of p21 has been associated with poor prognosis in colon and prostate carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
p53The product of the p53 gene is a nuclear phosphoprotein that regulates cell proliferation. Excess accumulation of the mutant p53 gene product results in inactivation of its tumor suppressor function and cellular transformation. Overexpression of mutant p53 gene has also been associated with high proliferative rates and poor prognosis in breast, colon, lung, and brain cancer, as well as in some leukemias and lymphomas. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
PAX8The PAX8 gene is a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors. This family plays critical roles during fetal development and cancer growth. PAX8 is involved in kidney cell differentiation, and thyroid development. PAX8 has been shown to be expressed in three of the most common types of renal cell carcinoma including clear cell, chromophobe and papillary carcinoma. PAX8 stains nuclei exclusively and performs well in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. PAX8 has been shown to be positive in thyroid and ovarian carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
pHistone H3 (PHH3)Phosphohistone H3 (PHH3) is a marker of cells in the late G2-M phase of the cell cycle. It is not expressed in apoptotic cells which may be confused with mitotic figures on a routine H&E stained slide. PHH3 can be used as a surrogate of mitotic activity or as an independent prognostic marker in breast carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
PIK3CA Mutation Analysis

Bi-directional sequencing of PIK3CA exons 1, 9, and 20 which are the most commonly-mutated regions of the gene.

Molecular
PTEN Mutation Analysis

Bi-directional sequencing of all exons (1-9) of the PTEN gene. For solid tumors, enrichment is performed before extraction. This assay does not detect large deletions.

Molecular
RET FISHProbes: RET (10q11.2)
Disease(s): Lung cancer, thyroid cancer
FISH
SynaptophysinAntibody to synaptophysin reacts with neuroendocrine neoplasms of neural as well as epithelial types. In combination with chromogranin A and NSE antibodies, the antibody to synaptophysin is very useful in the identification of normal neuroendocrine cells and neuroendocrine neoplasms. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
TERT Promoter Mutation AnalysisBi-directional Sanger sequencing is performed using PCR primers designed to target mutations in the promoter region of TERT. Molecular
Thyroglobulin (TGB)This antibody labels thyroglobulin (TGB) in follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid and colloid. Thyroglobulin antibody is useful in positive identification of thyroid carcinomas of the papillary and follicular types. Demonstration of thyroglobulin in a metastatic lesion establishes the thyroid origin of the tumor. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
TP53 Mutation Analysis

Bi-directional sequencing of TP53 exons 4-9.

Molecular
TTF1Thyroid Transcription Factory (TTF1) is found only in thyroid and thyroid tumors regardless of histologic type, as well as in lung carcinomas, including adenocarcinomas, non-small cell carcinomas, neuroendocrine and small cell carcinomas, and squamous cell carcinomas. The utility of TTF1 becomes apparent in the differential diagnosis of primary versus metastatic carcinomas, especially in the lung. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Tumor Mutation Burden

Tumor Mutation Burden (TMB) testing at NeoGenomics measures the number of non-synonymous DNA coding sequence changes per megabase of sequenced DNA. Testing is performed routinely within the NeoTYPE™ Discovery Profile, can be added to any of the NeoTYPE Solid Tumor Profiles, and is available as a stand-alone test. Results are reported as low, high intermediate, and high upper quartile in reference to the median genomic TMB value determined across a wide variety of tumor types in an internal validation study. TMB is also called tumor mutational burden or tumor mutation load (TML). 

Molecular
Universal Fusion/Expression Profile

The Universal Fusion/Expression Profile is a targeted RNA sequencing panel that utilizes next-generation sequencing (NGS) to detect all relevant fusion transcripts in 1,385 genes associated with hematologic or solid tumor cancers. It is especially useful for testing patients with rare diseases. Learn more about the Universal Fusion/Expression Profile. See the full 1,385 gene list here.

Molecular
VimentinVimentin is the major intermediate filament in a variety of mesenchymal cells, including endothelial cells, all fibroblastic cells, macrophages, Sertoli cells, melanocytes, lymphocytes and ovarian granulosa cells. Vimentin is found in all types of sarcomas and lymphomas. Positive staining for vimentin is seen in most cells of fibrosarcomas, liposarcomas, malignant fibrous histocytomas, angiosarcomas, chondrosarcomas and lymphomas. All melanomas and Schwannomas are strongly vimentin-positive. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)