Displaying 1 - 317 of 317 tests
OCT4 Octamer Binding Transcription Factor 4 (OCT4, also known as OCT3/4, POU51) is a transcription factor and is expressed by early embryonic cells, germ cells, and stem cells. OCT4 is a nuclear marker of…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
p21 p21 is a cyclin dependent protein kinase inhibitor and is a member of a family of proteins that functions to slow down cell division. p21 is found in t cells as they transitions from G1 phase to S…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
p27 p27 (KIP1) belongs to the family of cell cycle regulators that cause cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. p27 promotes apoptosis, plays a role in terminal differentiation of some tissues and mediates…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
p40 p40 antibody recognizes ΔNp63—a p63 isoform. It is equivalent to p63 in sensitivity for squamous cell carcinoma, but it is markedly superior to p63 in specificity, which eliminates a potential…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
p53 The product of the p53 gene is a nuclear phosphoprotein that regulates cell proliferation. Excess accumulation of the mutant p53 gene product results in inactivation of its tumor suppressor function…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
p57 p57 (Kip 2, CDKN 1C) is an inhibitor of several G1 cyclin complexes and is a negative regulator of cell proliferation. The gene encoding human p57 is located on chromosome 11p15.5, a region…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
p63 p63 is a homologue of the p53 gene and is necessary for normal breast and prostate development. Unlike other markers of myoepithelial cells and basal cells, p63 immunoreactivity is localized to the…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
pAKT (Phosphorylated AKT) AKT is a signal transduction protein that plays a central role in inhibiting apoptosis in a variety of tumor types. Constitutive activation of AKT (phosphorylated) has been observed in several human…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Pan Melanoma (S100 + Melan A + Tyrosinase) The Pan Melanoma staining combination increases sensitivity for melanomas. Since many skin biopsies are small, the triple stain conserves valuable tissue while saving time. Melan A (brown cytoplasmic…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Pan Melanoma/Ki67 Pan Melanoma/Ki67 serves as a tool to identify the proliferation rate of melanocytic lesions. A high Ki67 rate of a melanocytic lesion raises the possibility of malignancy.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Parvovirus This monoclonal antibody clone, R92F6, recognizes a capsid protein of human parvovirus B19. Therefore, this antibody will be useful in detection of parvovirus infected cells.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
PAX2 Paired Box 2 (PAX2) is a transcription factor that is essential for kidney development. In kidneys of normal adult, Pax2 protein expression is limited to nuclei of collecting ducts and to a lesser…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
PAX5 Paired Box 5 (PAX5) is a B-cell specific activator protein (BSAP). In early stages of B-cell development, PAX5 influences the expression of several B-cell specific genes, such as CD19 and CD20. PAX5…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
PAX8 The PAX8 gene is a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors. This family plays critical roles during fetal development and cancer growth. PAX8 is involved in kidney cell…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
PD1 Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is expressed on activated T-cells, B-cells, and myeloid cells. Anti-PD-1 is a marker of angioimmunoblastic lymphoma and suggests a unique cell of origin for this neoplasm.…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
PD-L1 28-8 FDA (OPDIVO®) PD-L1 IHC 28-8 pharmDx is a qualitative immunohistochemical assay using Monoclonal Rabbit Anti-PD-L1, clone 28-8 intended for use in the detection of PD-L1 protein in formalin-fixed, paraffin-…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Perforin Perforin is a protein found in cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). CTLs bind to cells that express foreign antigens and induce them to lyse. Perforin expression is significantly…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
PgR Progesterone Receptor (PR) belongs to a superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors. Estrogen Receptor (ER) induces PR expression, therefore, PR status serves as an indicator of an intact ER pathway.…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
pHistone H3 (PHH3) Phosphohistone H3 (PHH3) is a marker of cells in the late G2-M phase of the cell cycle. It is not expressed in apoptotic cells which may be confused with mitotic figures on a routine H&E stained…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
PLAP Normally human Placental Alkaline Phosphatase (PLAP) is produced by syncytiotrophoblasts after the twelfth week of pregnancy. PLAP is expressed by both malignant somatic and germ cell tumors. PLAP…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
PMS2 PMS2, also known as PMS1 protein homologue 2, is a DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein. The PMS2 protein forms a heterodimer with the MLH1 protein which is then activated in the presence of ATP; this…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Pneumocystis Carinii ( Jiroveci) This antibody is specific to P. carinii (P. Jiroveci). It stains P. carinii distinctly. The staining pattern is visualized as homogeneous rings corresponding to individual cyst walls. In addition,…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Prealbumin (TTR) Prealbumin (Transthyretin, TTR) is a hormone-binding protein that participates in the plasma transport of both thyroxine and retinol (vitamin A). The vast majority are inherited in an autosomal…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CXCL13 CXCL13 is useful marker in the diagnosis of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
PTEN Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in a wide range of cancers. PTEN plays a role in cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration. Reduced expression of…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
RB (Retinoblastoma Protein) Retinoblastoma (RB) is a tumor suppressor gene which functions as a negative regulator of the cell cycle by interacting with transcription factors including E2F1, PU1, ATF2, UBF, Elf1 and cAbl. RB…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Reticulin Special stain.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
S100 S100 belongs to the family of calcium binding proteins. Antibody to S100 stains Schwannomas, ependymomas, astrogliomas, almost all benign melanocytic lesions, melanomas and their metastases. S100…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
SALL4 SALL4, a newly identified zinc-finger transcriptional factor, is required for the maintenance of embryonic stem cell pluripotency by modulating OCT4. SALL4 is a novel sensitive and highly specific…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
SAT B2 SATB2 stains colonic and osteogenic cells and their neoplasms.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
HepPar1 Anti-Hepatocyte Specific Antigen (HepPar1) recognizes both benign and malignant liver derived tumors such as hepatoblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic adenoma. It recognizes both adult and…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
IgA IgA antibody reacts with immunoglobulin Ig alpha chains. It is useful in identifying leukemias, plasmacytomas and B-cell lineage lymphomas.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
IgD IgD antibody reacts with immunoglobulin Ig delta chains. This antibody is useful when identifying leukemias, plasmacytomas and B-cell lineage lymphomas (in particular marginal zone lymphoma).…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
IgG IgG antibody reacts with immunoglobulin Ig gamma chains. This antibody may be useful in identifying plasma cytomas and B-cell lineage lymphomas, and in conjunction with IgG4 staining to assess for…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
IgG4 (Immunoglobulin G4) Autoimmune pancreatitis typically produces an enlarged pancreas with narrowing of the pancreatic duct, and can mimic carcinoma. It was shown that the pancreatic tissue from patients with autoimmune…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
IgM IgM antibody reacts with immunoglobulin Ig mu chains. This antibody is useful when identifying leukemias, plasmacytomas and B-cell lineage lymphomas.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Glucagon Glucagon antibody is used for the identification of tumors and hyperplasias of pancreatic islets. This antibody labels A cells of the endocrine mammalian pancreas. It reacts with glucagon in a large…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
OCT2 Octamer Binding Transcription Factor 2 (OCT2) is present in all B-cells expressing Ig. The combination of BOB1 and OCT2 stains is helpful in distinguishing between classical Hodgkin lymphoma (at…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Kappa Antibody to the kappa light chain of immunoglobulin is reportedly useful in the identification of leukemias, plasmacytomas and certain non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Demonstration of monotypism in lymphoid…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Ki67 Ki67 is a nuclear protein that is expressed in proliferating cells. Ki67 is preferentially expressed during late G1, S, M, and G2 phases of the cell cycle, while cells in the G0 (quiescent) phase are…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Lambda (Lambda Light Chain IgG) by IHC Antibody to the lambda light chain of immunoglobulin is reportedly useful in the identification of leukemias, plasmacytomas and certain non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Demonstration of monotypism in lymphoid…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Langerin Langerin is a highly selective marker for Langerhans cells and the lesional cells of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Langerin protein expression has utility in differentiating Langerhans cell…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
LEF1 LEF1 overexpression is highly associated with CLL/SLL among small B-cell lymphomas and may serve as a useful marker for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the disease.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
LMO2 LMO2 protein is expressed in normal human germinal-center (GC) and GC-derived lymphomas. In addition, it is also expressed at high levels in endothelial cells, spleen, hematopoietic precursors, and a…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Lysozyme Lysozyme is synthesized predominantly in reactive histiocytes rather than in resting, unstimulated phagocytes. This antibody labels myeloid cells, histiocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Masson Trichrome Special stain.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Melan A (Mart1) Melan A (Mart1, Melanoma Antigen Recognized by T-cells 1), is a differentiation antigen that is expressed in melanocytes, most melanomas. Melan A recognizes a subcellular fraction found in…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Mesothelin Mesothelin is a 40kDa cell surface glycoprotein selectively expressed by mesothelial cells and malignant mesotheliomas, as well as by non-mucinous ovarian carcinomas, breast carcinomas, pancreatic…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
MGMT MGMT (O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) is a DNA repair enzyme. MGMT protects cells from alkylating toxins, and is an important factor in drug resistance to alkylating therapeutic agents. It…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
MITF MITF (microphthalmia transcription factor) is a transcription factor that regulates the development and survival of melanocytes. MITF is restricted to the melanocyte cell lineage. Anti-MITF…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
MMR Panel by IHC (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2) A well-defined subtype of colorectal cancer (CRC) is characterized by deficiencies in the mismatch repair (MMR) pathway. MMR status may impact prognosis and benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. MLH1,…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
MOC31 Monoclonal antibody MOC31 recognizes a membrane glycoprotein of 40kDa present on epithelial cells but not on mesothelial cells. MOC31 reacts with most adenocarcinomas of various origins, typically…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
MPO Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an important enzyme used by granulocytes during phagocytic lysis of engulfed foreign particles. In normal tissues and in a variety of myeloproliferative disorders, myeloid…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
MUC1 Mucin 1 (MUC1) is a high molecular weight glycoprotein that is found on the apical surface of many glandular epithelia, including the gastrointestinal, respiratory, urinary, reproductive tracts and…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
MUC2 Mucin 2 (MUC2) expression is detected in human tissues such as normal colon, breast, prostate, and salivary gland, as well as in gastrointestinal, colonic, breast and prostate neoplasia. This…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
MUC5 Mucin 5 (MUC5) is expressed in gastric mucosa, and in gall bladder epithelium. MUC5 antibody is recommended for use as part of a panel of antibodies for the characterization of mucin expression and…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Mucicarmine Special stain. Mucicarmine staining is used to identify epithelial mucins, namely acid mucopolysaccharides. Staining is useful to distinguishing mucin negative undifferentiated squamous cell lesions…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
MUM1 The MUM1 antibody is specific for the MUM1/IRF4 protein that is overexpressed in late plasma-cell-directed stages of B-cell differentiation. MUM1 is a powerful tool for understanding the histogenesis…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
MPO Cytochemical Cytochemical stain. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is present in granules of myeloid and monocytic cells, but absent from lymphocytes. Therefore MPO is an important marker for discriminating myeloid vs.…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
MyoD1 Nuclear expression of myogenic differentiation 1 (MyoD1) is restricted to skeletal muscle tissue and has been demonstrated to be a sensitive marker of myogenic differentiation. The antibody strongly…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Myogenin Expression of myogenin is restricted to cells of skeletal muscle origin. It is a useful marker for tumors of the muscle lineage, being strongly expressed in alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Myoglobin Myoglobin is found in skeletal and cardiac muscle but not in smooth muscle. Because myoglobin appears relatively late in the maturational sequence of striated muscle, it is typically undetectable…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
NF (Neurofilament) Neurofilaments (NFs) are the intermediate filaments of neurons and their processes. NFs are expressed in tumors of neural origin or tumors displaying neuronal differentiation, such as neuroblastoma,…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
NKX2.2 Homeobox protein NKX2.2 plays a critical role in neuroendocrine/glial differentiation. The NKX2.2 gene was recently identified as a target of EWS-FLI-1, the fusion protein specific to Ewing sarcoma.…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
NSE (Neuron Specific Enolase) In normal tissue, most neurons and their axonal and dendritic processes stain strongly positive for Neuron Specific Enolase (NSE), with the exception of Purkinje cells. Schwann cells, cells of the…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Pan-TRK Pan-TRK (clone EPR17341) is directed against the C-terminal region of TRK (tropomyosin receptor kinase) A, B, and C proteins, which are encoded by NTRK1, NTRK2, and NTRK3 genes respectively.  Pan-TRK…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
AAT Alpha-1-Antitrypsin (AAT) is useful in the study of inherited AAT deficiency, benign and malignant hepatic tumors and yolk sac carcinoma. Sensitivity and specificity of the results have made this…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
AFB Special stain. Ziehl-Neelsen Acid-Fast Bacilli Stain is used to detect the presence of acid-fast mycobacteria in tissue sections. Acid-fast techniques are of value in the detection of mycobacteria,…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Acid Phosphatase (AcP) Cytochemical stain.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
ACTH Anti-adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is a useful marker in the classification of pituitary tumors and the study of pituitary disease. It reacts with ACTH-producing cells (corticotrophs). It also…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
MSA Muscle Specific Actin (MSA) antibody recognizes the alpha and gamma isotypes of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells. It is non-reactive with other mesenchymal cells and all epithelial cells…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
SMA Smooth muscle actin antibody binds to smooth muscle cells and myoepithelial cells. It stains the muscularis propria and muscularis mucosae of the gastrointestinal tract, the uterine myometrium,…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Adenovirus Adenoviruses are simple DNA-containing viruses that multiply in the cell nucleus. They induce latent infections in tonsils, adenoids and other lymphoid tissue of man, causing either unapparent or…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
AFP Alpha-1-fetoprotein (AFP) is a 64 kD tumor-associated embryonal antigen produced by fetal liver, hepatocellular carcinoma, yolk sac tumor and several germ cell tumors of testicular and ovarian origin…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Alcian Blue Special stain. Alcian blue is intended to identify weakly sulfated mucins in tissue samples.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
ALK (D5F3) VENTANA FDA approved ALK (D5F3) CDx Assay is intended for the qualitative detection of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) protein in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) non-small cell lung…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
ALK-1 (for heme cases) The ALK1 (ALK1 cline) antibody labels normal human ALK protein and the NPM-ALK chimeric protein, and is a useful tool for the identification of the subgroup of anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCL)…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Annexin A1 Annexin A1 (ANXA1), a gene related to phagocytosis, is found to be one of the most highly upregulated genes in hairy cell leukemia. Annexin A1 is strongly expressed on the cell membrane of 97% of…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
AR Androgen receptor (AR) is responsible for the regulation of the growth of the prostate epithelial cells. In untreated prostate carcinoma, AR positive cells are more likely to be responsive to…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Arginase 1 Arginase 1 (ARG1), also known as liver arginase, is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme. ARG1 is abundantly expressed in liver and represents a sensitive and specific marker of benign and malignant…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
B72.3 This monoclonal antibody (B72.3) to tumor-associated glycoprotein recognizes a tumor-associated oncofetal antigen (TAG-72) expressed by a wide variety of human adenocarcinomas. This antigen is…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
BCA-225 This antibody recognizes a human breast carcinoma associated glycoprotein BCA-225 (220-225kD). This protein differs in size and distribution from other breast carcinoma antigens. It does not react…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
BCL1/Cyclin D1 BCL1/Cyclin D1 is a nuclear protein detectable in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections and is found in the majority of mantle cell lymphomas. Hairy cell leukemia and plasmacytoma may…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
BCL2 B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) was the first of the translocation-associated proteins to be identified in lymphoma. Most cases of follicular lymphoma have a [t(14;18)] translocation, resulting in BCL2…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
BCL6 BCL6 antibody stains the germinal center cells in lymphoid follicles, the follicular cells and interfollicular cells in follicular lymphoma, a subset of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, and Burkitt…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
BerEP4 Ber-EP4 recognizes two glycoproteins of 34 and 49 kDa present on the surface and the cytoplasm of all epithelial cells except the superficial layers of squamous epithelial, hepatocytes and parietal…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Beta Catenin Beta-catenin is an important regulator of cell–cell adhesion and embryogenesis. Mutations of beta-catenin could lead to some human cancers. Normal cells show membrane staining for beta-catenin, while…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
BG8 This antibody is specific for the Lewis Y (Type 2 Chain) carbohydrate antigen. Lewis Y has been evaluated as a clinical marker for the diagnosis and prognosis of cholangiocarcinoma, hepatocellular…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
BOB1 BOB1 is present in all B-cells expressing Ig. The combination of BOB1 and OCT2 staining is helpful in distinguishing between classical Hodgkin lymphoma (at least one marker negative) and nodular…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
BRAF V600E A monoclonal antibody (VE1) against mutant BRAF (V600E) permits fast assessment of the mutant protein expression throughout a tumor sample in hairy cell leukemia, some melanomas, and some thyroid…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
BRCA1 BRCA1 (breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility protein 1) is a nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a role in maintaining genomic stability and acts as a tumor suppressor. This test detects expression…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Breast Triple Stain (CK5 + p63 + CK 8/18) The combination of CK5 + P63 + CK8/18 (Breast Triple Stain) can be useful in distinguishing ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) from microinvasive breast carcinoma. This multiplex can decipher between a…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CA125 CA125 reacts with most epithelial ovarian neoplasms of serous, endometrioid, clear cell and undifferentiated types. CA125 is a useful tumor marker for ovarian carcinomas; however, CA125 has also been…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CA19.9 In normal tissues, the CA19.9 antigen has been demonstrated in ductal epithelium of the breast, kidney, salivary gland, sweat glands, respiratory epithelium of the lung, colon epithelium, pancreatic…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Carbonic Anhydrase IX (CA IX) Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a cell surface transmembrane protein, which is predominantly found in the gastrointestinal tract and gall bladder. The glandular regions of normal colon are reported…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Calcitonin Calcitonin is secreted by thyroidal parafollicular cells of neuroectodermal origin, probably in response to hypercalcemia. The IHC demonstration of calcitonin is important: (1) For identification of…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Calcium Stain Special stain.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Caldesmon Caldesmon is a developmentally regulated protein involved in smooth muscle and non-muscle contraction. Two closely related variants of human caldesmon have been identified. The h-caldesmon variant (…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Calponin Calponin, a calmodulin, is involved in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction. The expression of calponin is restricted to smooth muscle cells. Two isoforms of calponin exist with molecular…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Calretinin Calretinin is the most specific and reproducible positive marker of epithelial mesothelioma. Calretinin is a calcium-binding protein similar to S100 protein. It is found in the central and peripheral…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD10 CD10, also known as Common Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Antigen (CALLA), is expressed in early lymphoid progenitors and normal germinal center cells. It is almost always present on the surface of…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD117 cKIT CD117 (cKit) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase. It is expressed in many tissues and cells, such as tissue mast cells, skin basal cells, melanocytes, breast glandular epithelial cells,…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD11c In normal cells, CD11c is expressed on activated CD4/CD8+ T cells, granulocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages, and NK cells. In diseased, cells, CD11c is detected on acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-M4 and…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD123 CD123 labels plasmacytoid dendritic cells and is useful in diagnosing neoplasms derived from these cells as well as reactive conditions, such as histiocytic necrotizing lymphadentis.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD138 CD138 (Syndecan-1) positively stains normal tissue including B-cell precursors and plasma cells. Positive staining in tumors includes myeloma, primary effusion lymphoma. CD138 negative staining…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD14 CD14 stains normal macrophages/monocytes, granulocytes (weak), Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, and B cells. Positive staining in diseased cells comprises B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD15 CD15 (X-Hapten) plays a role in mediating phagocytosis, bactericidal activity, and chemotaxis. It is present on granulocytes, including neutrophils and eosinophils, and to a lesser degree on…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD163 CD163 antigen is restricted in its expression to the monocytic/macrophage lineage. It is present on all circulating monocytes and most tissue macrophages except those found in the mantle zone and…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD19 CD19 recognizes a 95kD cell surface glycoprotein which is expressed by cells of the B-cell lineage and follicular dendritic cells. CD19 is a co-receptor of CD21and is an important signal transduction…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD1a At least five CD1 genes (CD1a, b, c, d, and e) have been identified. CD1a is expressed on cortical thymocytes, Langerhans cells, and dendritic cells. It is absent on mature peripheral blood T-cells,…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD2 CD2, the E-rosette receptor, is an extremely broad T-cell marker. This antibody immunostains the vast majority of T-cells and a subset of natural killer (NK) - cell malignancies. Half of thymic B-…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD20 Normal cell expression of CD20 is found on most B-cells (after CD19 and CD10 expression, before CD21/22 expression and surface immunoglobulin expression) and expression is retained on mature B-cells…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD21 CD21 (CR2, C3d receptor and EBV receptor) is expressed strongly on mature B-cells, follicular dendritic cells (FDC) and weakly on immature thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. In B-cell ontogeny, CD21…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD22 CD22 expression is restricted to normal and neoplastic B-cells and is absent from other hemopoietic cell types. In B-cell ontogeny, CD22 is first expressed in the cytoplasm of pro-B and pre-B-cells…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD23 CD23 is identical to low affinity IgE receptor found on B-cells. CD23 is expressed on a subpopulation of peripheral blood cells, B-lymphocytes and on EBV transformed B-lymphoblastoid cell lines. CD23…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD25 The interleukin-2 receptor is designated CD25. Originally isolated from T-lymphocytes, it is now known to be expressed on hairy cell leukemia and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, classical Hodgkin…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD3 The CD3 antigen is first detectable in early thymocytes and its appearance probably represents one of the earliest signs of commitment to the T-cell lineage. It has a cytoplasmic expression at early…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD30 CD30 is a lymphocyte activation antigen, related to tumor necrosis factor. It is expressed in activated B-, T- and NK cells. Positive staining is seen in infectious mononucleosis, lymphocytes…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD31 CD31 is a 130kDa transmembrane glycoprotein that is shared by vascular lining cells, megakaryocytes and platelets. This marker is highly restricted to endothelial neoplasms among all tumors of the…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD33 CD33 is a useful marker to identify cells of myeloid and monocytic lineage, leukemias and myeloproliferative neoplasms derived from these cells.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD34 CD34, a single chain transmembrane glycoprotein, is selectively expressed on human lymphoid and myeloid hematopoietic progenitor cells and endothelial cells. CD34 antibody labels many…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD35 CD35 antigen is a transmembrane protein of 160-250 kDa that binds complement components C3b and C4b. It mediates phagocytosis by neutrophils and monocytes. CD35 is found on erythrocytes, B-cells, a…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD38 CD38 is a transmembrane protein that is highly expressed on thymocytes. It is also present on activated T-cells and terminally differentiated B-cells (plasma cells). Other reactive cells include NK…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD4 CD4, a single chain transmembrane glycoprotein, is found on a T-cell subset (helper/inducer). It is also present on a variety of monocyte-derived cells, including Langerhans and other dendritic cells…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD42b CD42b stains normal platelets, megakaryocytes, and megakaryoblasts. In diseased cells, blasts in transient myeloproliferative disorder are positively stained. CD42b is used in diagnosis of acute…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD43 CD43 (leukosialin, sialophorin, or leukocyte sialoglycoprotein) is a cell surface glycoprotein that is expressed on all thymocytes, T-cells, and cells of myeloid lineage. CD43 antibody can be useful…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD44 The CD44 family of glycoproteins exists in a number of variant isoforms, including hematopoietic variant (CD44s) and epithelial cells variant (CD44v). While many human tumors express CD44, a positive…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD45 (LCA) CD45 (Leukocyte Common Antigen, LCA) is comprised of at least four isoforms (CD45RA, CD45RB, CD45RC and CD45RO) of membrane glycoproteins. CD45 is expressed on hematopoietic cells (human leukocytes,…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD45RO CD45RO (an isoform of leukocyte common antigen) reacts with mature activated T-cells, most thymocytes, and a sub-population of resting T-cells within both CD4 and CD8 subsets. CD45RO antibody marks…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD5 CD5, a transmembrane protein, is found on most thymocytes and immature peripheral T-cells. It stains normal B-cells of mantle zone of spleen and lymph nodes, B-cells in peritoneal and pleural…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD56 CD56 recognizes two proteins of the neural cell adhesion molecule, the basic molecule expressed on most neuroectodermally-derived cell lines, tissues and neoplasms (e.g. retinoblastoma,…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD57 CD57 is expressed on subpopulations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, NK active cells and T-cells. Hematopoietic malignancies that are CD57+ include a minority of T-lymphoblastic leukemias,…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD61 CD61 (GPIIIa) is a glycoprotein found on megakaryocytes, platelets, and their precursors. CD61 antigen plays a role in platelet aggregation and also as a receptor for fibrinogen, fibronectin, von…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD68 CD68 is an antibody directed against lysosomes. It is important for identifying macrophages in tissue sections. It stains macrophages in a wide variety of human tissues, including Kupffer cells and…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD7 CD7 is expressed on the majority of immature and mature T-lymphocytes and T-cell leukemia. It is also found on natural killer cells, and a small subpopulation of normal and malignant B-cells. CD7…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD71 CD71 is useful in identifying erythroid precursors with no interference from mature erythrocytes and also in the determination of erythroid leukemia, benign erythroid proliferative disorders, and…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD79a CD79a first appears at the pre B-cell stage and persists until the plasma cell stage where it is found as an intracellular component. CD79a is found in the majority of acute leukemias of precursor B-…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD8 CD8 is a T-cell marker for the detection of cytotoxic/suppressor T-cells. CD8 is also detected on NK cells, most thymocytes, a subpopulation of null cells, and bone marrow cells. This antibody is…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CD99 CD99 (MIC2 gene product, E2) antigen is strongly expressed by Ewing sarcoma cells, primitive peripheral neuroectodermal tumors, and lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CDK4 Among cyclin/CDK proteins, CDK4 and cyclin D1 are the most frequently activated by somatic genetic alterations in multiple tumor types. CDK4 antibody assists in distinguishing atypical lipomatous…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CDX2 CDX2 is an intestine specific transcription factor that regulates both the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells. It is expressed in the nuclei of epithelial cells…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CDX2/CK7 Double Stain CDX2 is a transcription factor expressed in the nuclei of epithelial cells throughout the intestine, from duodenum to rectum. The CDX2 protein is expressed in primary and metastatic colorectal…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CEA (Mono) Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is usually demonstrated as a linear labeling of the apical poles of cells lining the glandular lumen and occasionally as weak staining near the apex of normal colonic…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CEA (Poly) Polyclonal carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibody stains a larger percentage of cholangiocarcinomas compared to hepatocellular carcinomas. Approximately 95% of olangiocarcinomas are stained…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Chromogranin A Chromogranin is present in several elements of the diffuse neuroendocrine system (DNES), including anterior pituitary, thyroid perifollicular C cells, parathyroid chief cells, pancreatic islet cells…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CK 10/13 (Cytokeratin 10/13) Cytokeratins 10 and 13 are intermediate-size, acidic type I cytokeratins (molecular mass of 56.5 kDa). CK10/13 cocktail is expressed in all suprabasal cells of normal stratified squamous epithelium,…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Pan-Cytokeratin Monoclonal antibodies AE1 and AE3 recognize the acidic and basic subfamilies of cytokeratin, respectively, thus the combination of these two antibodies can be used to detect almost all human…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CAM 5.2 Anti-Cytokeratin (CAM 5.2) has a primary reactivity with human keratin proteins that correspond to Moll`s peptides #7 and #8, Mr 48 and 52 Kd. Cytokeratin 8 is present on secretory epithelia of…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CK HMW (CK903/34BE12) CK903 (34betaE12) is a high molecular weight cytokeratin present in all squamous epithelium and their carcinomas. This antibody recognizes cytokeratins 1, 5, 10 and 14 that are found in complex…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CK HMW/CK LMW Double Stain This cytokeratin cocktail can be useful in differentiation of the squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. The 34bE12 clone recognizes cytokeratin (CK) 1, 5, 10 and 14. It is reactive with…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CK OSCAR Anti-cytokeratin clone OSCAR (CK OSCAR) demonstrates a broad spectrum of cytokeratin reactivity. In normal tissues, OSCAR is reactive with most epithelial types, including bile ducts and hepatocytes…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CK14 (Cytokeratin 14) Cytokeratin 14 (CK14) belongs to the type A (acidic) subfamily of high molecular weight keratins and exists in combination with keratin 5. CK14 has been studied as a prognostic marker in breast…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CK17 Cytokeratin 17 (CK17) is an effective marker to distinguish myoepithelial cells from luminal epithelium of various glands (mammary, sweat, salivary, bronchial, tracheal, laryngeal, esophageal) and…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CK18 (Cytokeratin 18) Cytokeratin 18 (CK 18), a 45kDa protein, belongs to the acidic type of cytokeratins, and is typically expressed in simple, nonstratified epithelia. However, CK 18 is also expressed in basal and…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CK19 Cytokeratin 19 (CK19) is a member of the type I acidic subfamily of keratins. It is expressed in various different human tissues. CK19 labels ductal and glandular epithelia, prostatic epithelia, and…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CK20 Cytokeratin 20 (CK20) positivity is seen in the majority of adenocarcinomas of the colon, mucinous ovarian carcinomas, transitional cell, and Merkel cell carcinomas, and frequently in adenocarcinomas…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CK5/6 D5/16 B4 clone of CK5/6 antibody reacts strongly with cytokeratins 5 and 6. Cytokeratin 5/6 have been found valuable for the distinction between low differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CK7 Cytokeratin 7 (CK7) antibody reacts with proteins that are found in most ductal, glandular and transitional epithelium of the urinary tract and bile duct epithelial cells. CK7 distinguishes between…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
cMET The cMET tyrosine kinase receptor, normally expressed by epithelial cells, is overexpressed and amplified in a variety of human tumors, including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). High levels of…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
CMV (Cytomegalovirus) by IHC Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an opportunistic pathogen infecting lung, kidney, gut and other organs in situations where an individual is immunologically immature, such as the fetus and neonate. Infection…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
cMyc cMyc protein is a transcription factor localized to the nucleus of the cell. Amplification of the cMyc gene has been found in several types of human tumors. cMyc is amplified in 20-30% of breast…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Collagen IV Collagen IV is a major constituent of the basement membranes along with laminins and enactins. In kidney, the antibody reacts with glomerular and tubular basement membranes, parts of the mesenchymal…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Congo Red Special stain.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Copper Stain Special stain.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
COX2 Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays a role in tumorigenesis through stimulating epithelial cell proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis, stimulating angiogenesis, enhancing cell invasiveness, mediating immune…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
cREL Inactive cREL resides in the cytoplasm and translocates to the nucleus upon activation. Strong, homogeneous nuclear cREL staining has been observed in primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Inhibin Anti-Inhibin alpha is an antibody against a peptide hormone which has a demonstrated utility in differentiating between adrenocortical tumors and renal cell carcinoma. This antibody stains most…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
DBA.44 This antibody reacts with a subset of B-cells in the mantle zone and some immunoblasts outside the follicle. It reacts with most hairy cell leukemia cases. This antibody shows strong positive…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Desmin Desmin is an intermediate filament protein of both smooth and striated muscles. Antibody to desmin reacts with striated (skeletal and cardiac) as well as smooth muscle cells. Anti-desmin antibody is…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
DOG1 DOG1 is a cell surface protein of unknown function selectively expressed in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Among GIST cases with Kit mutations the DOG1 antibody identified 11% more cases…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
DPC4 The gene DPC4 (deleted in pancreatic carcinoma 4, also called SMAD4) was identified in 18q21.3 This gene is frequently mutated and deleted in pancreatic carcinomas (55%) and less frequently (20 - 22…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
E-Cadherin E Cadherin is an adhesion protein that is expressed in cells of epithelial lineage. It stains positively in glandular epithelium, as well as adenocarcinomas of the lung, G.I. tract and ovary. It is…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
EBV (LMP1) This antibody reacts strongly with Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)-positive lymphoblastoid cell lines and EBV infected B-cell immunoblasts in infectious mononucleosis. It also reacts with some EBV-…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
EGFR Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) overexpression can occur in a variety of tumor types, including breast, prostate, ovarian, brain, lung and predominantly squamous cell carcinomas. Tumors that…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
EGFR (E746-A750del specific) Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a 170 kDa transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that belongs to the HER/ErbB protein family. Somatic mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of EGFR are…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
EGFR (L858R mutant specific) Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a 170 kDa transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that belongs to the HER/ErbB protein family. Somatic mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of EGFR are…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Elastic Stain Special stain.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
EMA Epithelial Membrane Antigen (EMA) antibody stains normal and neoplastic cells from various tissues, including mammary epithelium, sweat glands and squamous epithelium. Hepatocellular carcinoma,…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
ER Estrogen Receptor (ER) belongs to a superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors and is expressed in about 85% of invasive breast cancers. There are two known isoforms of estrogen receptor, ERα and ERß.…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
ERCC1 The Excision Repair Cross-Complementing Rodent Repair Deficiency, Complementation Group 1 (ERCC1) polypeptide is required for nucleotide excision repair (NER) of damaged DNA. Elevated levels of ERCC1…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
ERG ERG oncoprotein expression has been shown to be a highly specific marker for prostate cancer. Given the lack of ERG expression in a wide variety of normal epithelial tissues and tumors, detection of…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Factor VIII RA Factor VIII-related antigen is a component of Factor VIII complex. Factor VIII-related antigen is one of the available immunohistochemical markers of endothelial cells. It has also been demonstrated…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Factor XIIIa Factor XIIIa is a dermal dendrocyte marker and shows variable reaction with these types of tumors. It can be used for histiocytic phenotyping and has been reported to mark capillary hemangiomas and…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Fascin Human fascin is a highly conserved actin-bundling protein. It is expressed predominantly in dendritic cells. Lymphoid cells, myeloid cells and plasma cells are negative for staining. However, Reed-…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Fite (Leprosy) Stain Special stain.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
FLi-1 Friend leukemia integration (FLI1) is a nuclear transcription factor and has been reported as the first nuclear marker of endothelial differentiation. FLI1 labels hemangiomas, angiosarcomas, Kaposis…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Fontana Masson Special stain.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
FOXP1 FOX P1 (Forkheadbox-P1) is a transcription factor widely expressed in normal tissues. Its expression is commonly deregulated in malignancies. FOX P1 is differentially expressed in resting and…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
FOXP3 FOX P3 is expressed at a high level in CD25 positive/CD4 positive regulatory T cells, at a low level in CD4 positive/CD25 negative cells, and is absent in CD4 negative/CD8 positive T cells. FOX P3…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
FSH Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a pituitary hormone involved in the maturation of ovarian follicles and estrogen secretion in females. In the pituitary gland, FSH is produced by gonadotrophs.…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Galectin 3 Galectins are a structurally-related family of proteins; 14 different galectins have been characterized. They are cytoplasmic proteins and can be translocated into the nucleus. Gal-3 has been found…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Gastrin Gastrin, a polypeptide hormone, occurs naturally in three forms: gastrin-14, gastrin-17 and gastrin-34. This antibody labels gastrin or gastrin-analogue producing cells in gastrin-secreting tumors…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
GATA3 GATA3 (GATA binding protein 3) is a member of the GATA family of transcription factors. Among several other roles, GATA3 is involved in luminal cell differentiation in the mammary gland and appears…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
GCDFP15 This antibody is specific to a 15kDa monomer protein called Gross Cystic Disease Fluid Protein-15 (GCDFP-15). GCDFP15 is expressed in apocrine epithelia, lacrimal, ceruminous and Moll’s glands, as…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
GCET1 The GCET1 gene codes for a serpin expressed in germinal center (GC) B-cells. GCET1 is highly restricted to a subset of GC B-cells and GC-derived lymphomas. It is preferentially expressed in…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
GFAP Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) is the major protein found in astrocytes and its expression is evidence of astroglial origin and differentiation. Gliomas are the most common cerebral neoplasm…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
GH Growth Hormone (GH) is produced by the somatotroph cells in the pituitary. This marker is a useful in classification of pituitary tumors and the study of pituitary disease (acromegaly).
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Giemsa for sections Special stain.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
HPL Human Placental Lactogen (HPL) is a polypeptide hormone synthesized in syncytiotrophoblastic cells of placenta and has been used as a tissue marker for certain trophoblastic tumors.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
GLUT1 Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) facilitates the transport of glucose across the plasma membranes of mammalian cells. GLUT-1 is expressed in many human tissues including those of the colon, lung,…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Glycophorin A Glycophorin A (sialoglycoprotein alpha) is one of two transmembrane proteins exposed on the outer surface of normal human erythrocytes. This monoclonal antibody reacts with an epitope located on the…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Glypican-3 A useful marker to differentiate between benign (negative) and malignant (positive) liver diseases (HCCs).
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Granzyme B Granzyme B antibody labels activated human cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells. This marker can be a useful tool for the identification of anaplastic large cell lymphoma,…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Grocott Methanamine Silver (GMS) Special stain. GMS (Grocott Methenamine-Silver Nitrate) Fungus Stain is used to demonstrate fungal organisms in tissue sections.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
GST Pi Glutathione S Transferase Pi (GSTpi) is a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the conjugation of toxic compounds to glutathione for transport out of the cell. Increased expression of GSTp has been…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
IDH1 IDH1 mutations are frequent genetic alterations in low-grade diffuse gliomas and secondary glioblastoma (70%). This alteration is observed in fewer than 10% of primary GBM cases. IDH1 IHC antibody is…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Colloidal Iron Special stain.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Hall Bile Stain Special stain.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
HBME1 HBME1 is an anti-mesothelial monoclonal antibody that recognizes an unknown antigen on the microvilli of mesothelioma cells. It stains normal mesothelial cells as well as epithelial mesotheliomas in…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
HCG-Beta (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Beta) HCG-beta is secreted in large quantities by the placenta and normally is found in maternal circulation during early fetal development. Polyclonal Rabbit Anti-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin is intended…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Hemoglobin A Hemoglobin A antibody reacts with the alpha chain of adult hemoglobin A. This antibody is useful in the detection of red blood cell precursors. Immunohistochemical localization of hemoglobin is…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
H. Pylori This antibody reacts with H. pylori on the surface and in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of stomach biopsies. Studies have shown that H. pylori plays an important role in the etiology of chronic…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
D240 D2 40 identifies a 40kDa O-linked sialoglycoprotein expressed by a variety of tissues, including fetal testes and testicular germ cell tumors. Anti-D2 40 has also been demonstrated to label lymphatic…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Hepatitis B Core Antigen Hepatitis B virus belongs to the hepatovirus family and causes type B hepatitis. Hepatitis B virus is spherical in shape with a diameter of 42 nm. Core antigens are localized within the nuclei,…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
HGAL HGAL is specifically expressed in the cytoplasm of germinal center B-cells, but is absent in mantle and marginal zone. This antibody is highly specific for germinal center B-cells and it is an ideal…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
HHV8 Human Herpes Virus (HHV) 8 is the likely etiological agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), and is present in all cases. HHV 8 encodes a latent nuclear antigen (LANA) that is the product of the viral gene…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
HMB45 Antibody clone HMB45 recognizes a melanoma-specific antigen by reacting with melanoma cells, nevus cells and neonatal melanocytes. HMB45 is expressed on the majority of malignant melanoma cases as…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Hepatitis B virus, belongs to the hepatovirus family, and causes type B hepatitis. It is spherical in shape with a diameter of 42 nm. It contains a 27 nm partially double stranded DNA core enclosed…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
HSV I/II This antibody cocktail reacts with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) type 1- or type 2-specific antigens and with antigens common to both types. The antibodies react with all the major glycoproteins present…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Serotonin Serotonin is synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract and serotonin-containing carcinoid tumors. Serotonin may be a…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
SF1 SF1 is expressed in all steroidogenic tissues, including the adrenal cortex, testicular Sertoli cells, and Leydig cells, ovarian theca, hypothalamus, and anterior pituitary. SF1 is highly valuable…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Simian Virus 40 (SV40) Simian Virus 40 (SV40) is a polyomavirus that is found in both monkeys and humans. Like other polyomaviruses, SV40 is a DNA virus that has the potential to cause tumors. SV40 is believed to suppress…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
SMMHC Smooth Muscle Myosin, Heavy Chain (SMMS-1) is an antibody to smooth muscle myosin, heavy chain that reacts with human visceral and vascular smooth muscle cells. The antibody also reacts with human…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Smoothelin Smoothelin is a novel cytoskeletal protein that reacts with the 59 kDa and 100 kDa proteins corresponding to Smoothelin A and B, respectively, which are exclusively found in smooth muscle cells (SMC…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Somatostatin (Receptor Type 2) Somatostatin receptor type 2 (sstr2) is a receptor for somatostatins-14 and -28. This antibody has a great value in the assessment of sst2A status in human neuroendocrine tumors. Overexpression of…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
SOX10 SOX10 is a sensitive marker of melanoma, including conventional, spindled, and desmoplastic subtypes. It is also a useful marker in detecting both the in situ and invasive components of desmoplastic…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
SOX11 Nuclear protein expression of SOX-11 is highly associated with both cyclin D1-positive and negative mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). SOX-11 IHC is useful for identifying true cyclin D1-negative MCL and…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Spirochete Spirochete (Treponema pallidum) is the causative agent of syphilis. In the past, localization of the spirochete agent was achieved with silver stains such as Steiners and/or Warthin-Starry. Treponema…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Synaptophysin Antibody to synaptophysin reacts with neuroendocrine neoplasms of neural as well as epithelial types. In combination with chromogranin A and NSE antibodies, the antibody to synaptophysin is very…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
TRAcP TRAP IHC is of use in the identification of hairy cell leukemia, but it is not a completely specific marker.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
TCL1 T-cell leukemia/lymphoma protein 1 (TCL1) is normally found in the nucleus and cytoplasm of lymphoid lineage cells during early embryogenesis. Chromosomal translocations may lead to overexpression of…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
TCRβF1 T Cell Receptor beta (TCRβ) is used as a phenotypic marker for TCRβ expressing T-cells. TCRβ is expressed by thymocytes and a majority of peripheral (α/β TCR-bearing) T-cells. This antibody does not…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
TdT (Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase) TdT is a highly specific marker for the diagnosis and classification of acute lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemias. The determination of TdT expression is most valuable when it is important to…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
TFE3 Overexpression of TFE3 is a sensitive and specific marker of Xp11 translocation in renal cell carcinomas. TFE3 is also expressed in alveolar soft part sarcoma the hallmark of which is a chromosomal…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Thrombomodulin (TM) Thrombomodulin (TM) is a plasma membrane-related glycoprotein that has anticoagulant activity. TM antigen is found in several cell types, including megakaryocytes, mesangial cells, synovial cells,…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
TIA1 TIA1 (T-cell intracytoplasmic antigen) monoclonal antibody reacts with a 15 kDa cytoplasmic granule-associated protein, expressed in lymphocytes processing cytolytic potential. Most anaplastic large…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
TLE1 Expression of the transducing-like receptor (TLE) genes, TLE1, TLE2, TLE3 and TLE4, correlate with immature epithelial cells that are progressing toward a terminally differentiated state. TLE1…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Toxoplasma Toxoplasma is a crescent shaped sporozoan that lives as an intracellular parasite in various tissues of vertebrates and completes its life cycle in a single host. This antibody helps to identify the…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Trichrome Special stain. Trichrome stains are frequently used to differentiate between collagen and smooth muscle in tumors and to identify increases in collagenous tissue in diseases such as cirrhosis of the…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Tryptase This antibody labels a mast cell tryptase. It will also show reactivity to basophils, but to a lesser degree.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
TS (Thymidylate Synthase) Antibody MAB4130 recognizes a 36 kDa protein identified as Thymidylate Synthase [TS], which is a target for the fluoropyrimidine group of antineoplastic drugs used to treat solid tumors. Expression…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
TTF1 Thyroid Transcription Factory (TTF1) is found only in thyroid and thyroid tumors regardless of histologic type, as well as in lung carcinomas, including adenocarcinomas, non-small cell carcinomas,…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the most common cause of tuberculosis. Immunohistochemical demonstration of mycobacterial antigens is not only useful in establishing mycobacterial etiology, but can…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Tyrosinase Tyrosinase is a copper-containing metalloglycoprotein that catalyzes several steps in the melanin pigment biosynthetic pathway. Mutations of the tyrosinase gene occur in various forms of albinism.…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Uroplakin III Uroplakins (UPs) are a family of transmembrane proteins (UPs Ia, Ib, II and III) that are specific differentiation products of urothelial cells. In non-neoplastic urothelium, UPIII is expressed in…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV), a member of the human herpes virus family, causes two distinct clinical manifestations: chickenpox and shingles. Primary VZV infection results in chickenpox (varicella…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a glycoprotein involved in angiogenesis that promotes tumor progression and metastasis. VEGF is a mitogen for vascular endothelial cells derived from…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Vimentin Vimentin is the major intermediate filament in a variety of mesenchymal cells, including endothelial cells, all fibroblastic cells, macrophages, Sertoli cells, melanocytes, lymphocytes and ovarian…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Warthin Starry Special stain. Warthin Starry stain is intended to identify Helicobacter pylori in tissue samples.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Wright Giemsa Cytochemical stain. The Wright Giemsa stain is used to stain peripheral blood and bone marrow smears for study of blood cell morphology.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
WT1 Wilms tumor susceptibility gene 1 protein (WT1) has diagnostic utility in the distinction of mesothelioma from adenocarcinoma in tissue sections of pleural tumors. WT1 diffusely stains most ovarian…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Uroplakin II Uroplakin II is a 15 kDa protein component of urothelial plaques. Uroplakin II mRNA was found in both bladder cancer tissues and peripheral blood of patients with primary and metastatic urothelial…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
PD-L1 SP263 FDA (IMFINZI™) The VENTANA PD-L1 (SP263) assay is an FDA-approved complementary diagnostic IHC test for PD-L1 status in patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) who are being…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Mammaglobin Mammaglobin is a breast-associated glycoprotein. In normal breast tissue, this antibody labels breast ductal and lobular epithelial cells. In tumor cells, they are reactive with all types of breast…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
p120 Catenin P120 Catenin is a tyrosine kinase which binds to E-cadherin within the cell membrane. It is detectable in the cell membranes of a wide variety of cells, but predominates in virtually all types of…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
LH Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a tropic hormone that modulates the secretory activity of other endocrine glands. It is produced in the anterior hypophysis of the pituitary gland. LH antibody is useful…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
NeuN NeuN is a sensitive and specific marker of neuronal differentiation in brain tumors.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Olig2 Olig2, a transcription factor, is involved in oligodendroglial specification. Olig2 expression has been reported in most glial tumors, such as oligodendrogliomas and astrocytomas. Olig2 is negative…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Prolactin Prolactin is a growth factor secreted by the anterior pituitary that is necessary for the proliferation and differentiation of the mammary glands. Prolactin antibody is useful in the identification…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
SOX2 SOX2 stains all embryonal carcinomas and is highly specific for squamous cell carcinoma.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is a pituitary hormone of 28 kDa that stimulates thyroid growth and production of thyroid hormones. This antibody labels thyrotropic cells of the pituitary and may…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
ATRX ATRX mutations predominantly occur in grade II/III astrocytoma and secondary glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) brain tumors. ATRX loss defines a subgroup of astrocytic tumors with a favorable prognosis.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
p16 p16 (p16 -INK4a, p16-MTS1, inhibitor of CDK4) is the product of the CDKN2 gene. It inhibits the progression of the cell cycle through the G1 phase. p16 is a candidate tumor suppressor, whose gene is…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
MSH2 Human mismatch repair protein 2 (MSH2) is involved in the initial recognition of mismatched nucleotides during the post replication mismatch repair process. Loss of MSH2 function leads to the…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
MSH6 Mismatch repair (MMR) genes results in failure to repair errors in repetitive sequences that occur during DNA replication. The defects in DNA repair pathways have been related to tumor carcinogenesis…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Villin This antibody recognizes villin, a cytoskeletal filament protein of 58 kDa found in human renal epithelial cells. Villin antibody is useful for the study of gastrointestinal cells in normal and tumor…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
MLH1 MLH1, a mismatch repair protein involved in maintaining the integrity of genetic information, alongside MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. During DNA replication, strand misalignment can occur resulting in…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
MUC6 MUC6 is expressed mucopeptic neck cells and pyloric glands of the gastric mucosa. MUC6 antibody is recommended for use as part of a panel of antibodies in differentiation of gastric cancer.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
PD-L1 22C3 FDA (KEYTRUDA®) for Gastric/GEA PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx is a qualitative immunohistochemical assay using Monoclonal Mouse Anti-PD-L1, Clone 22C3 intended for use in the detection of PD-L1 protein in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
RCC1 In normal kidney, renal cell carcinoma (RCC1, gp200) is localized along the brush border of the proximal tubule. In other normal tissues, RCC is also localized along the luminal surfaces of breast…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Glutamine Synthetase Glutamine synthetase (GS) is strongly expressed in a majority of hepatocellular carcinoma, including cases of early HCC and low grade HCC.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Napsin A Napsin A has a specific function in normal alveolar epithelium and is proposed to play a role in the proteolytic processing of surfactant precursors. Napsin A is reported to be predominantly…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
PD-L1 22C3 FDA (KEYTRUDA®) for NSCLC PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx is a qualitative immunohistochemical assay using Monoclonal Mouse Anti-PD-L1, Clone 22C3 intended for use in the detection of PD-L1 protein in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
ROS1 ROS1 gene rearrangements are reported in 1% to 2% of lung adenocarcinomas and are associated with a response to the multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor crizotinib. ROS1 rearrangement can be…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Surfactant Pulmonary surfactant apoproteins play essential roles in keeping alveoli from collapsing at the end of expiration. SP-A is located mainly in type II pneumocytes and has been demonstrated in…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
BAP1 BAP1 IHC stain is a tool for detection of BAP1 mutations with subsequent inactivation. Loss of BAP1 by IHC is 100% specific for malignant mesothelioma in the context of mesothelioma vs. mesothelial…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
HER2 Breast This test uses the Ventana PATHWAY anti-HER-2/neu antibody (clone 4B5) for the semi-quantitative detection of HER-2 antigen in sections of FFPE normal and neoplastic tissue. The test is FDA-approved…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
TOPO1 Topoisomerase I (TOPO1)  is essential nuclear enzyme for replication and transcription during cell reproduction and DNA repair. Upregulation of TOPO1 increases with disease stage in colorectal and…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Insulin Insulin is composed of a and b chains connected through the C-peptide. The main storage site for insulin is the pancreatic islets. Antibodies to insulin are important as a marker of islet cell tumor…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
S100p Expression of S100P, a member of the S100 family, is increased in a number of tumors, including pancreas, lung, breast, and ovary carcinomas. S100P can be seen in many pancreatic ductal carcinoma,…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Somatostatin Somatostatin is a useful marker of D-cells of pancreatic islet cells. D-cells are used to identify hyperplasia of the pancreatic islets. Most of these tumors are malignant, giving rise to…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
NKX3.1 NKX3.1 is a protein encoded by the NKX3.1 gene located on chromosome 8. NKX3.1 protein has been found to be positive in the vast majority of primary prostatic adenocarcinomas. NKX3.1 stains nuclei in…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
P501S P501S protein, also called the prostein, is a type IIIa plasma membrane protein which is exclusively expressed in cells of normal and malignant prostate. P501S expression has not been detected in…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
P504S Expression of P504S protein, or Alpha-methylacyl-CoA Racemase (AMACR), is found in prostatic adenocarcinoma but not in benign prostatic tissue. It has also been found to stain premalignant lesions of…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Parafibromin Complete absence of nuclear staining for parafibromin is diagnostic of parathyroid carcinoma or an HPT-JT-related tumor (hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome).
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
STAT6 STAT6 is a highly sensitive and specific immunohistochemical marker for solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) and can be helpful to distinguish this tumor type from histologic mimics.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
MUC4 MUC4 is useful in the identification of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) and sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Prostate Triple Stain The combination of p63 + CK HMW + P504S (PIN-4 cocktail) can be extremely useful for diagnosing prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and/or prostate carcinoma, especially in difficult cases with…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
PSA Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 33-34kDa. It is restricted to the cytoplasm of acinar and ductal epithelia of normal, benign or malignant prostate tissue…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
PSAP/HPAP Prostate specific acid phosphatase/human prostatic acid phosphatse (PSAP/HPAP) is a 100kDa glycoprotein present in high concentration in the prostate gland and its secretions. PSAP is specific to the…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
PSMA Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a 750 amino acid type II membrane glycoprotein with folate hydrolase and neuropeptidase activity. PSMA is expressed in normal and malignant prostatic…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
INI1 Lack of nuclear expression of INI1 is characteristic of malignant rhabdoid tumors and epithelioid sarcomas.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
RRM1 RRM1 is crucial for DNA synthesis and damage repair. High levels of RRM1 are associated with G2 cell cycle arrest and increased apoptosis in vitro.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
MAL MAL is a distinct molecular marker of primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma subtype among diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
PTH Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is expressed in normal parathyroid, parathyroid adenomas and primary and secondary hyperplasia of parathyroid. This antibody is useful in the differential diagnosis of…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Thyroglobulin (TGB) This antibody labels thyroglobulin (TGB) in follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid and colloid. Thyroglobulin antibody is useful in positive identification of thyroid carcinomas of the papillary…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
ZAP70 A prognostic factor in CLL/SLL.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
INSM1 INSM1 is a transcription factor that is a sensitive and specific marker for neuroendocrine tumors.  It is a nuclear stain, and is as good if not better than synaptophysin and is superior to…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
PD-L1 22C3 FDA (KEYTRUDA®) for Cervical PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx is a qualitative immunohistochemical assay using Monoclonal Mouse Anti-PD-L1, Clone 22C3 intended for use in the detection of PD-L1 protein in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Iron Special stain. This iron stain is used to detect and identify ferric (Fe3+) iron in tissue preparations, blood smears, or bone marrow smears. Minute amounts of ferric acid are commonly found in bone…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
BCL10 BCL-10 is an N-terminal CARD (Caspase Recruitment Domain) containing protein that is involved in the adaptive immune response. It is also a substrate for MALT1. Mutations in the gene can lead to…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
ICOS ICOS (Inducible Co-Stimulator, CD278) is a member of the CD28 family that regulates T-cell activity and immune responses. ICOS is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. It plays an…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
NGFR Nerve Growth Factor Receptor (NGFR), also known as P75NTR or CD271, is a neurotrophin receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family. NGFR is expressed mainly in Schwann cells and…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
Amyloid A & Amyloid P Amyloid A and P react with amyloid deposits in many tissues. When accompanied by Congo Red, Amyloid A and P can be used to distinguish primary and secondary amyloidosis. Because these stains are…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
PD-L1 SP142 FDA (TECENTRIQ®) for NSCLC The VENTANA PD-L1 (SP142) Assay is a qualitative immunohistochemical assay using rabbit monoclonal anti-PD-L1 clone SP142 intended for use in the assessment of the PD-L1 protein in formalin-fixed,…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
PD-L1 SP142 FDA (TECENTRIQ®) for Urothelial Carcinoma The VENTANA PD-L1 (SP142) Assay is a qualitative immunohistochemical assay using rabbit monoclonal anti-PD-L1 clone SP142 intended for use in the assessment of the PD-L1 protein in formalin-fixed,…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
PD-L1 22C3 FDA (KEYTRUDA®) for Urothelial Carcinoma PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx is a qualitative immunohistochemical assay using Monoclonal Mouse Anti-PD-L1, Clone 22C3 intended for use in the detection of PD-L1 protein in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
BCL2 (SP66) BCL2 is a protein associated with apoptosis regulation produced by the BCL2 gene and is comprised of an alpha and beta chain. BCL2 (clone SP66) shows negative reaction on reactive germinal centers…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
NUT Expression of nuclear protein in testis (NUT) is generally confined to the germ cells of the testis and ovary. NUT midline carcinomas are aggressive tumors with non-diagnostic morphology that…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
PD-L1 SP142 FDA (TECENTRIQ®) for TNBC (Breast) The VENTANA PD-L1 (SP142) Assay is a qualitative immunohistochemical assay using rabbit monoclonal anti-PD-L1 clone SP142 intended for use in the assessment of the PD-L1 protein in formalin-fixed,…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)
PD-L1 22C3 FDA (KEYTRUDA®) for HNSCC (Head & Neck) PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx is a qualitative immunohistochemical assay using Monoclonal Mouse Anti-PD-L1, Clone 22C3 intended for use in the detection of PD-L1 protein in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded…
Immunohistochemistry (IHC)